The temple is situated close to the base of the Rockfort and was constructed by the Pallava king Mahendravarman I in the 6th century AD. Shiva is worshiped as Thayumanavar, and is represented by the lingam and his consort Parvati is depicted as Mattuvar Kuzhalammai. The presiding deity is revered in the 7th century Tamil Saiva canonical work, the Tevaram, written by Tamil saint poets known as the nayanars and classified as Paadal Petra Sthalam.
According to Hindu legend, a pregnant woman named Rathnavathi was an ardent devotee of Shiva and he arrived in the form of her mother to attend to her delivery. The presiding deity is thus named Thayumanaswamy, the one who acted as mother. The Rockfort is a fortress which stands atop a 273-foot-high rock, consisting of a set of monolithic rocks accommodating many rock-cut cave temples. Originally built by the Pallavas, it was later reconstructed by the Madurai Nayaks and Vijayanagara rulers.The major complex in the temple are believed to be built during the 8th century by the Pandyan Empire.
The Thayumanavar temple houses a shrine for Amman (the Goddess) as well as the main deity. The temple is located halfway up the Rockfort. The temple has columned structure. There central shrine of Thayumanaswamy is located a level up to the lower half that houses the shrine of Mattuvar Kuzhalammai. The lower level also houses the niches of Vinayagar, Arumugar, Navagrahas and Veerabadraswami. The walls around the central shrine houses the image of Dakshinamurthy, Somaskandar, Natarajar, Surya, Brahma and Durga.
The temple celebrates dozens of festivals throughout the year. The Chittirai festival during the Tamil month of Chittirai (April - May) is celebrated for fifteen days, portraying the various incidents associated with the temple legend. The car festival is held on the ninth day, when the processional deities of Thayumanswamy and Mattuvar Kuzhalammai are taken out in separate chariots around the temple in NSB Road, Nandikovil Street, North and East Andar streets and the Malaivasal.
The Karthigai festival is celebrated during the Tamil month of Karthikai, between November and December, concluding with the celebration of Karthikai Deepam. A huge lamp is lit in a cauldron, containing three tons of ghee, at the top of the Malaikottai hills during the Deepam. To mark the occasion, the festival deity of Thayumanaswami circumambulates the mountain.
Every full moon, tens of thousands of pilgrims worship Thayumanaswami by circumambulating the Tiruchirappalli hill barefoot. The circumambulation covers the circumference around the hill, and is referred as Girivalam. On the day of yearly Chitra Pournami, the full moon of the Tamil calendar, hundreds of thousands of pilgrims come from across the world to worship Thayumanaswami.
The temple has six daily rituals at various times and twelve yearly festivals on its calendar. The Chittirai festival during the Tamil month of Chittirai (April - May) is celebrated for fifteen days, portraying the various incidents associated with the temple legend. The temple is maintained and administered by the Hindu Religious and Endowment Board of the Government of Tamil Nadu.
From Tiruchirapalli International Airport, Thayumanaswami Temple is 12.6 KM. It is 5.0 KM from Tiruchirappalli Railway Station and 1.0 KM from Tiruchchirappalli Town. From Central Bus Stand Rkt the temple is only 600m
- 6.00 - 12.00, 16.00-20.00
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0431 - 270462